geographic region in the Middle East.
It is the geographical area located southeast of the Mediterranean Sea up to the Jordan Valley. In some definitions, the definition extends to include areas east of the Jordan River, located in Western Asia and linking North Africa with its occurrence and the Sinai Peninsula at the meeting point of the two continents, forming the southwestern part of the Levant connected to Egypt; It was a crossing point and intersection of cultures, trade and politics, in addition to its centrality in the history of religions. Therefore, many of its cities have historical or religious significance, especially Jerusalem. The borders of the historical region today are based on several overlapping political entities: the State of Israel (which was established in the 1948 war after the displacement of hundreds of thousands of Palestinians from their homeland), and the West Bank and Gaza Strip, which Israel occupied in the 1967 war. In addition to the Israeli military control over the entire West Bank, the residents of the cities of the occupied territories are subject to a Palestinian autonomous authority that has managed the civil affairs of the population since 1994 based on the Oslo Accords, in addition to the entire Gaza Strip being subject to the Palestinian National Authority since Israel’s withdrawal from the Gaza Strip in 2005. In 2007 The division of the political authority in the autonomous areas led to the emergence of an authority in the Gaza Strip and another in the cities of the West Bank. The population within these borders is estimated at approximately 11,900,000 people, as a large part of the population of historical Palestine today are Arabic-speaking (Muslims and Christians), while the other part of its population are Hebrew-speaking, Jewish immigrant followers and members of other peoples, and their percentage is Today 49%, while Arabs make up 46%.
After the First World War and its consequences from the fall of the Ottoman Empire, which controlled all of the Levant, including Palestine, across the Treaty of Sèvres, the San Remo Conference and the Sykes-Picot Agreement, the borders of the British Mandate over Palestine were drawn, and the borders stretched longitudinally from north to south at about four degrees of width. It extends between latitudes 29.30 and 33.15 North and longitudes 34.15 and 35.40 East, with an area of 26,990 km2, including Lake Tiberias and half of the Dead Sea. It is bordered on the west by the Mediterranean Sea with a coastline of 224 km in length, on the east by Syria and Jordan, on the north by Lebanon, and on the south by Egypt and the Gulf of Aqaba. Palestine is rectangular in shape, its length from north to south is 430 km, and its width in the north ranges between 51-70 km, and in the middle is 72-95 km at Jerusalem, while in the south the width expands to reach 117 km at Rafah and Khan Yunis until the Dead Sea. The region has a very diverse land, and is divided geographically into four regions, which are from west to east the coastal plain, the hills, the mountains (the Galilee mountains and the Nablus mountains), the Jerusalem mountains and the Jordan Valley. In the far south there is the Negev desert. Between the mountains of Nablus and the mountains of Galilee lies Marj bin Amer and cuts Mount Carmel, which extends from the mountains of Nablus to the northwest, the coastal plain. Altitudes range from 417 meters below sea level in the Dead Sea (which is the lowest point on land in the world) to 1204 meters above sea level at the top of Mount Al-Jarmaq (Mount Meron as it is called in Israel).
From a political point of view, Palestine is one of the most tense security areas in the world as a result of what many international human rights organizations consider to be Israeli violations against Palestinian civilians, in addition to settlement operations that exacerbate the situation, in addition to the racist treatment such as the Israeli separation wall that it erected in the West Bank, which many considered Racially, all of these things created a bad security environment. Since the establishment of the Palestinian National Authority in 1993, the name Palestine has been used internationally in some contexts to sometimes refer to the territories under the rule of the Palestinian Authority. The title Palestinian refers today, especially since 1948, to the Arab population throughout the region (while the Jewish population prefers not to use this title in reference to themselves).
The area of Palestine is about 27.009 km2, and its population is about 4,500,000 people distributed on its land, and there are about 1,400,000 Palestinians living inside the occupied territories, and about 5,200,000 Palestinians are immigrants in the countries of the world, thus bringing the total of the Palestinian people at home and abroad to about Eleven million people, according to statistics conducted in 2013.
Climate of Palestine
Palestine is characterized by the diversity of its climatic regions, despite its small area. It belongs to the temperate Mediterranean region, and it has a tropical climate and a desert and semi-desert climate. The location of Palestine in the eastern Mediterranean had a significant impact on the diversity of its climate, which was linked to the Mediterranean climate, which was affected by the western winds accompanying the air depressions, especially in the northern regions of Palestine. The climate of Palestine is between its south and north, and between the coastal plains and the Jordan Valley. As a result of the fact that Palestine is far from the areas where the depressions are concentrated around the island of Cyprus.
The Negev desert was formed, in which precipitation decreases to about 50 mm per year, and the areas located in the shade of rain on the eastern slopes and the Rift Valley region are desert areas with little rain, and other elements of the climate differ from region to region as a result of multiple factors.
number of population
The population within these boundaries is estimated to be approximately 11,900,000 (2021), as a large part of the population of historic Palestine today are Arabic-speaking (Muslims and Christians).
The State of Palestine is distinguished by its possession of many tourist and archaeological sites that combine culture, history, art, civilization and religion. Many civilizations have passed through or inhabited the State of Palestine, such as Canaanite, Egyptian, Babylonian, Assyrian, Greek, Phoenician, Roman, Christian, Hebrew and Islamic, which greatly affected the formation of the civilization, history and antiquities of Palestine. The state of Palestine is home to the three monotheistic religions, and its holy religious places and temples spread across its lands, as it includes the oldest Christian church on earth and also the second holiest mosque for Muslims in the world.
Wonderful tourist places
Jerash is an ancient historical city inhabited by man for more than 6,500 years, and this city was in the past belonging to the Roman Empire, and evidence of this is the ancient monuments that are still clearly visible in that region; Where there are large gatherings of Roman buildings and monuments, such as: huge stone columns scattered along the old street, wide squares, historical palaces, towers and fountains.
Al-Aqsa Mosque and the Dome of the Rock
Al-Aqsa Mosque is located in the Old City of Jerusalem, and according to what was found in history, it was built 40 years after the construction of the Kaaba, and was named by this name because of its distance from the Grand Mosque. Al-Aqsa Mosque and the honorable dome are considered among the most sacred religious places. Al-Aqsa Mosque was mentioned in the Holy Qur’an, specifically in Surat Al-Isra.
Hisham’s Palace is located in the city of Jericho, and was named by that name because the Umayyad Caliph Hisham Abd al-Malik was the one who built it. In general, the meanings of innovative engineering are evident in every part of this palace; Being decorated with mosaics and striking decorations, it also includes mosques and halls full of antique columns.
Baha’i Gardens and the Shrine of the Bab
The Bahai Gardens are located in Haifa, one of the most beautiful gardens in the world, and the tomb of Ali Muhammad Rida Shirazi is also located in the same city.
Bethlehem is one of the most attractive tourist cities in Palestine, as it is considered a holy city for Christians. It is the birthplace of Jesus Christ, and many religious celebrations and exhibitions are held in it that last for several days. The Patriarch Parade has been included as a UNESCO World Heritage tradition in 2012 AD.
This church is located in the city of Jerusalem, and it is one of the most important churches in the world; It is believed that it contains the tomb of Jesus, peace be upon him, and that he was crucified over it.
Black flag of the Abbasid state. White flag of the Umayyad dynasty. Green Al-Bayt banner. Red Banner of the Great Arab Revolt.